How to Use Cutting Fluids in Industrial Cutting Processes?

cutting fluidis the name given to a type of coolants and lubricants designed specifically for metalworking and cutting processes. There are different types such as oils, oil-water emulsions, aerosols, gels. Cutting fluids can consist of petroleum derivatives, animal fats, vegetable oils and other raw materials. Depending on their content and type, they can be named differently as cutting fluid, cutting oil, cutting compound, coolant, lubricant.

Cutting fluids used in industrial cutting processes provide significant benefits to high productivity and quality. The traditional role of cutting fluids can be summarized as lubricating the burr-tool and tool-workpiece interfaces, removing heat from the workpiece and cutting surface, removing heat-transferred burrs from the cutting area and preventing corrosion. Each of these four functions can be a justification for using cutting fluid.

What to Expect from a Good Cutting Fluid?

  • The workpiece is neither too hot nor too cold; keep at a constant temperature
  • Maximizing working life by lubricating the cutting edge and reducing its wear
  • Ensuring the safety of the person using the cutting machine and the environment against burr splashing
  • Preventing machine parts and saw blades from rusting

What are the Types of Cutting Fluids?

straight fats

Straight oils are used undiluted and unmixed with any other substances. Such oils consist of petroleum oil or a base mineral. They contain polar oils with anti-wear properties such as solid oil and vegetable oils, as well as pressure additives such as chlorine and phosphorus. They have the weakest cooling properties among cutting fluids.

Soluble oily liquids

Çözünür yağlar su ile karıştırılıp emülsiyon oluşturularak kullanılır. İçeriğinde konsantre baz mineral yağ ve emülgatörler bulunur. %3 ila %10 arasında seyreltilmiş biçimde kullanılırlar. Yağlama ve ısı transfer performansları yüksektir. Ekonomik olmalarının da yarattığı etkiyle endüstride yaygın olarak kullanılırlar.

Semi-synthetic fluids

Semi-synthetic fluids are formed by the combination of synthetic and soluble oily fluids. They fall between these two groups in terms of both cost and heat transfer performance.

synthetic fluids

Synthetic fluids consist of organic and inorganic compounds and anti-corrosion additives rather than petroleum or mineral oil. They are usually used diluted. Synthetic cutting fluids have high “Collin performance”.
(Collin Performance is the measure of the ability to reduce friction between the workpiece and the tool. High Collin performance prolongs the life of the cutting tool and improves the quality of the cut surface. It is recommended to use low viscosity and high Collin performance cutting fluids in high speed cutting operations.)

What to Consider When Choosing Cutting Fluid

When choosing the cutting fluid, the type of cutting saw blade, the characteristics of the material to be cut and the machining operation factors should be taken into account.

1- Cutter Saw Blade Type:

Carbide saw blades can get very hot. Synthetic cutting fluids with high cooling capacity are suitable for such saw blades. Since high speed steel (HSS) saw blades heat up less, soluble oils or semi-synthetic fluids are suitable.

2- Type of Material to be Cut:

The cutting fluid requirement for the most commonly processed metals can be summarized as follows:

Steel: Mineral oils with lubricant additives
Alloy Steel: Mineral oil or sulfur rice oil
Aluminum: Mineral oils or soluble oils without active sulfur
Copper: soluble fats
Stainless Steels: Mineral oils with pressure additives

3- Processing Operation

High levels of cooling are required for high-speed operations such as turning, shaping and drilling. Synthetic fluids are suitable for these processes. Mineral oils with excellent lubrication and high pressure properties are suitable for demanding jobs at low speed and high pressure, such as thread cutting.

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