What are the Properties of Cutting Fluid?

It is possible to examine the properties of commonly used cutting fluids under 6 main headings.

  1. water based liquids
  2. straight fats
  3. soluble fats
  4. Semi-synthetic fluids
  5. synthetic fluids
  6. Bio-based liquids
  • Water-based cutting fluids have high cooling capacity. It has lower lubricating properties compared to others. They are used in grinding operations and in situations requiring rapid heat dissipation.
  • Straight fats consist of mineral and petroleum oils. They are ideal for slow machining operations. They are used in precision cutting operations with superior surface quality.
  • Soluble oils are a combination of mineral oils and emulsifying agents. It has cooling and moderate lubrication properties for general purpose works.
  • Semi-synthetic oils consist of mineral oils and synthetic coolants. It offers a balance between cooling and lubrication functions. They are used in cutting operations that require both cooling and lubrication.
  • Synthetic cutting fluids do not contain mineral oil. They are used in grinding operations, processes where oil staining is a concern.
  • Biologically based liquids stand out because they cause less harm to the environment. They are obtained from renewable resources. They are biodegradable. Their biggest advantages are that they reduce skin irritation, have low disposal costs, and have superior performance when mixed with mineral liquids.

Do Some Properties of Cutting Fluids Affect Health?

When using cutting fluids, their harmful properties should be taken into consideration.

  1. Dermatitis and skin allergies may occur as a result of prolonged contact with cutting fluids. Therefore, protective clothing such as gloves and aprons should be used when working with cutting fluids.
  2. Breathing vapors from cutting fluids can affect lung health. For this reason, the cutting area should be adequately ventilated.
  3. Older formulations of cutting fluids may contain carcinogenic substances. For this reason, cutting fluids of known brands that meet safety standards should be preferred.

What are the required properties of cutting fluids?

  • High Thermal Conductivity: The cutting fluid must have a high degree of thermal conductivity. In this way, they quickly transport the heat generated in the cutting area and allow both the cutting tool and the workpiece to cool. This feature helps to extend the life of the cutting tools and ensure the smoothness of the cut surface.
  • Good lubrication property: Thanks to the good lubrication feature of the cutting fluid, the friction between the workpiece and the cutting part is reduced.
  • High Flash Point: The flash point of the cutting fluid must be high to avoid possible fire hazard.
  • Low Viscosity: The literal meaning of viscosity is viscosity. In other words, it is the internal resistance of a fluid to flow. Cutting fluids should have low viscosity. The viscosity of the cutting fluid should allow the fluid to flow through the workpiece, dripping off the burrs.
  • Chemical Stability: Cutting fluids should not react chemically with the surfaces they contact. It should not discolour the cut workpiece or cause corrosion. It must have chemical stability to prevent rapid and easy decomposition and degradation under effects such as high pressure and high temperature.
  • High Boiling Point: Light oils with low boiling points can evaporate easily. These types of oils are not suitable for metal cutting fluids.
  • Low Flammability: Sparks generated during metal cutting may cause fire. Therefore, the flammability index of the cutting fluid should be low. A low flammability index means that the oil is less likely to ignite.
  • Resistance to Corrosion and Oxidation: A good cutting fluid should not corrode, that is, wear out, the metal workpiece. It should also provide some corrosion protection on the new surface formed after cutting.
  • Non-Toxic: Cutting fluids should not contain toxic substances that threaten human life. Because these liquids have the possibility of contacting both people and the environment. It should not irritate the skin or cause contamination.
  • Being Odorless: They should not have any disturbing odors.

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