During the metal cutting process, a large heat increase occurs due to friction at the interface between the cutter and the cutting workpiece. This triggers problems with surface quality and tool life. The cutting teeth of the saw blade may break, the tool wears out due to the thermal stress and damage becomes inevitable. The surface roughness and machining precision of the workpiece are also directly related to the cutting temperature. All these problems are solved thanks to cutting fluids that function as coolants. Cutting fluids play an important role in increasing tool life and improving surface quality. The cutting (cooling) fluid applied during the process is effective in removing metal burrs from the cutting area and ensuring the smoothness of the workpiece surface.

The Importance of Coolant in HSS Saws

High speed steel (HSS) saw blades begin to soften at temperatures above approximately 650°C. The cooling effect of the cutting fluids used when working with these saws allows the machines to reach higher speeds compared to dry cutting.  

The high specific heat and metal wetting properties of the “water-soluble oil” type of cutting fluids enable it to function as a better coolant than mineral oils. 

What is the Cooling Function of Cutting Fluid?

The smooth size and shape of metals during cutting is possible thanks to machining. Machining means cutting, shaping or removing material from the workpiece with the help of a tool. 

During machining, the temperature begins to rise in the cutting area. Friction between the surface of the cutting tools of the machine and the chips formed after cutting is the cause of the temperature increase. As machining operations continue, the temperature around the cutting area increases, and this affects both the metal to be cut and the parts in the machine. Increasing processing temperature causes wear and even breakage of cutting tools and saw blades. In addition, the surface of the workpiece burns and the surface quality decreases. In order to prevent these undesirable situations from occurring, the cutting temperature must be kept under control within a certain tolerance. That's why it's critical to use cutting fluids that act as cooling to control the cutting temperature. 

Basic Functions of Cutting Fluids

Cutting fluids have lubrication, cooling and chip evacuation functions. The lubrication function prevents the resulting chip from welding to the cutting surface. The lubricating fluid reduces the friction between the surface it contacts and the tool surface. In this way, the heat generated as the surfaces move decreases.  

The cooling function of the cutting fluid dissipates heat that would cause thermal expansion and distortion of the workpiece and the cut surface. In this way, constant cutting temperature and dimensional accuracy are maintained.

The third function of cutting fluids is chip evacuation. Chip removal is vital in continuous metal cutting operations. Thanks to cutting fluids, accumulated metal chips are removed from the cutting area, preventing possible damage. 

Benefits of Cutting Fluids to Businesses

By applying cutting fluids to the chip interface, higher cutting speed, higher feed rate, shorter processing time, greater depth of cut, reduced surface roughness and reduced power consumption are enabled. 

Cutting fluids provide great advantages to businesses in optimizing metal cutting processes by offering advantages such as machining efficiency, product quality enhancing functions and chip evacuation. Metal manufacturers provide better tool life and improved surface quality by choosing the most suitable cutting fluid type for their business and applying it in the most appropriate way for their processes. As a result, costs are reduced. It is necessary to embrace cutting fluids as an integral part of metalworking processes. In this way, businesses can produce high-quality products in the industry and experience the advantages of maintaining competition in the metal market. 

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