What is Cutting Fluid and Why Should It Be Used?

Cutting fluids are used in machine shops, production facilities, and places where metal parts are cut or processed to ensure that the process proceeds smoothly, safely and efficiently. The main purpose of these fluids is to lubricate and cool the tool tip moving in the metal material. Without cutting fluids, parts of the machines would fail or break. Another benefit of using cutting fluid is that it contributes to the safety of both the operator and the environment during the process.

Coolant Functions

Lubrication: Cutting fluids can be used as lubricants to lubricate tools and machinery. In this way, the friction between the saw blades and the workpiece and therefore the amount of heat produced is reduced. The force required for the operation is reduced and the saw blade moves more easily through the metal. Lubrication also prevents the resulting chips from welding to the tool.
Cooling: Industrial jobs that require intensive cutting over long periods of time generate more heat than simple air cooling can cope with. Rather than interrupting production to cool tools, heat is quickly reduced by adding liquid coolant. Thanks to cutting fluids, the workpiece and tools are cooled, reducing friction and wear and accelerating processes.
Washing: Cutting fluids also function to wash the chips formed during the process. In this way, a better surface quality is achieved.

What are the required properties of cutting fluid?

It is possible to examine the features that a good cutting fluid should have in 6 categories.

1 – High Flash Point
A cutting fluid should not ignite easily and burn. A high flash point means that the heat energy required for the cutting fluid to burn is high. This reduces the possibility of fire.
2 – Low Viscosity
A low viscosity liquid pours easily and flows freely. Thanks to the low viscosity cutting fluid, metal burrs formed during cutting do not accumulate. The machine is easily cleaned.
  3 – Low Surface Tension
The energy required to form a film layer on the surface of a liquid is called surface tension. Liquids with low surface tension can spread easily and cover a large area. Thanks to this feature of cutting fluids, chips do not accumulate in hard-to-reach places and thus the machine remains clean.
4 – Stability at High Temperature
At high temperatures occurring during the metal cutting process, the chemical structure of the cutting fluid must remain stable without deterioration. Thus, undesirable consequences such as corrosion can be prevented in the process.
  5 – High Heat Absorption Rate
Cutting fluids absorb heat and provide cooling. Heat absorption rate measures how quickly the fluid absorbs energy. Cutting fluids with higher ratios provide faster cooling.
  6 – Excellent Lubrication Feature
The lubricating property of the cutting fluid is very important. Thanks to the cutting fluid with high lubrication properties, wear of the machine is prevented; This means significant savings in maintenance costs.

What are the Benefits of Using Cutting Fluid/Oil?

  • Using cutting fluid means longer tool life. The cooling function of cutting fluids prevents saw blades from overheating and being damaged.
  • The cutting fluids used prevent the saw from rubbing and jamming, helping to obtain a quality surface on the metal piece being processed.
  • Cutting fluids prevent friction, allowing you to use less energy and therefore save money.
  • Possible corrosion and rust on the cut surfaces and cutting tools are prevented by using cutting fluids.
  • Thanks to the lubricating feature of cutting fluids, metal burrs formed are prevented from rubbing against the machine. Burrs are easily removed from the machine thanks to the cutting fluid.
  • A quality cutting fluid ensures that the workpiece remains at a constant temperature rather than excessively cold. Thanks to the cooling function of cutting fluids, dimensional distortion caused by heat is prevented.

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